Obstetrics & Gynaecology

Obstetrics & Gynaecology

We use advanced techniques including laparoscopic surgery and gynecologic and obstetric ultrasound. We provide treatment for all kinds of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Problems.

Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. As a medical specialty, obstetrics is combined with gynecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and gynecology which is a surgical field. Prenatal care is important in screening for various complications of pregnancy. This includes routine office visits with physical exams and routine lab tests. We provide complete care both mother and child.

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Our department of obstetrics & Gynaecology provides the treatment for:



High pregnancy risk

If your pregnancy is high-risk, it means you need extra care to help you have a healthy pregnancy and baby. If you're being treated for a lifelong (chronic) condition, you may have known for a long time that becoming pregnant carries additional risks. Or you may find out you have a high-risk pregnancy because of a problem that develops for the first time during pregnancy.

Endometriosis

Endometriosis, sometimes called "endo," is a common health problem in women. It gets its name from the word endometrium, the tissue that normally lines the uterus or womb. Endometriosis happens when this tissue grows outside of your uterus and on other areas in your body where it doesn't belong.
Most often, endometriosis is found on the:
• Ovaries
• Fallopian tubes
• Tissues that hold the uterus in place
• Outer surface of the uterus

Ovarian cysts

The ovary is one of a pair of reproductive glands in women that are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus. Each ovary is about the size and shape of a walnut. The ovaries produce eggs (ova) and female hormones estrogen and progesterone. The ovaries are the main source of female hormones, which control the development of female body characteristics such as the breasts, body shape, and body hair. They also regulate the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Ovarian cysts are closed, sac-like structures within an ovary that contain a liquid, or semisolid substance. "Cyst" is merely a general term for a fluid-filled structure, which may or may not represent a tumor or neoplasm (new growth). If it is a tumor, it may be benign or malignant. The ovary is also referred to as the female gonad.

PCOD (Poly Cyst Ovarian Disease)

PCOD is the most common hormonal reproductive problem in women of childbearing age. An estimated five to 10 percent of women of childbearing age have PCOD. In our body we have two ovaries. They are used to produce follicles which then grow to form eggs. The eggs then reach into uterus for fertilization, when fertilization doesn’t occur; you have your menstrual cycle operating to take care of it. In cases of PCOD, follicles are created, but they don’t grow into the egg. The ovaries keep on generating follicles and this causes too many cysts in it. Eggs are not forming, which gives rise to menstrual cycle and no fertilization. Ovaries are not functioning properly, they continue to make more of male hormones which lead to excess growth of hair or excessive hair fall.

UTI

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as kidney infection (pyelonephritis). Symptoms of a lower urinary tract include pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder. Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI. Rarely the urine may appear bloody. In the very old and the very young, symptoms may be vague or non-specific.

Dysmenorrhea

Primary dysmenorrhea is another name for common menstrual cramps. Cramps usually begin one to two years after a woman starts getting her period. Pain usually is felt in the lower abdomen or back. They can be mild to severe. Common menstrual cramps often start shortly before or at the onset of the period and continue one to three days. They usually become less painful as a woman ages and may stop entirely after the woman has her first baby. Secondary dysmenorrhea is pain caused by a disorder in the woman's reproductive organs. These cramps usually begin earlier in the menstrual cycle and last longer than common menstrual cramps.

Prenatal and Antepartum Care

Prenatal care, also known as antenatal care is a type of preventive healthcare, with the goal of providing regular check-ups that allow doctors or midwives to treat and prevent potential health problems throughout the course of the pregnancy while promoting healthy lifestyles that benefit both mother and child.

Normal Labor and Delivery patterns

Labor consists of a series of rhythmic, involuntary, progressive contractions of the uterus that cause effacement (thinning and shortening) and dilation of the uterine cervix. The stimulus for labor is unknown, but digitally manipulating or mechanically stretching the cervix during examination enhances uterine contractile activity, most likely by stimulating release of oxytocin by the posterior pituitary gland. Normal labor usually begins within 2 wk (before or after) the estimated delivery date. In a first pregnancy, labor usually lasts 12 to 18 h on average; subsequent labors are often shorter, averaging 6 to 8 h.

Caesarian Section

Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies. A caesarean section is often performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby or mother at risk.

Postpartum haemorrhage

Postpartum bleeding or postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is often defined as the loss of more than 500 ml or 1,000 ml of blood within the first 24 hours following childbirth. Some have added the requirement that there also be signs or symptoms of low blood volume for the condition to exist. Signs and symptoms may initially include: an increased heart rate, feeling faint upon standing, and an increased breath rate.

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. Normally, your body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. With diabetes mellitus, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, it can't use the insulin it does produce, or a combination of both.

Pre-term labor

Preterm labor is defined as regular contractions of the uterus resulting in changes in the cervix that start before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Changes in the cervix include effacement and dilation. When birth occurs between 20 weeks of pregnancy and 37 weeks of pregnancy, it is called preterm birth. Preterm birth is a concern because babies who are born too early may not be fully developed. They may be born with serious health problems. Some health problems, like cerebral palsy, can last a lifetime. Other problems, such as learning disabilities, may appear later in childhood or even in adulthood.

Third trimester bleeding

Bleeding during the second and third trimester has special clinical significance, encompassing problems that are quite serious and those that are normal or expected. It’s important to be able to distinguish between them. As the cervix thins and begins to dilate in preparation for labor, the patient may notice the passage of some bloody mucous.

Hypertension, pre-eclampsia and eclampsiaa

Eclampsia is the onset of seizures (convulsions) in a woman with pre-eclampsia. Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy in which there is high blood pressure and either large amounts of protein in the urine or other organ dysfunction. Onset may be before, during, or after delivery. Most often it is during the second half of pregnancy. The seizures are of the tonic-clonic type and typically last about a minute.

Multiple Gestations

A multiple birth is the culmination of one multiple pregnancy, wherein the mother delivers two or more offspring. A term most applicable to placental species, multiple births occur in most kinds of mammals, with varying frequencies. Such births are often named according to the number of offspring, as in twins and triplets. In non-humans, the whole group may also be referred to as a litter, and multiple births may be more common than single births. Multiple births in humans are the exception, and can be exceptionally rare in the largest mammals.

Premature Rupture of Membranes

Premature rupture of membranes (PROM), or pre-labor rupture of membranes, is a condition that can occur during pregnancy. It is defined as rupture of membranes (breakage of the amniotic sac), commonly called breaking of the mother's water, more than 1 hour before the onset of labor. The sac contains amniotic fluid, which surrounds and protects the fetus in the uterus (womb). After rupture, the amniotic fluid leaks out of the uterus, through the vagina. Women with PROM usually experience a painless gush of fluid leaking out from the vagina, but sometimes a slow steady leakage occurs instead.

Post-term pregnancy

A post term pregnancy, also called a prolonged pregnancy, is one that has extended beyond 42 weeks or 294 days from the first day of the last menstrual period. As many as 10 percent of pregnancies will deliver post term.Although pregnancy is said to last nine months, healthcare providers track pregnancy by weeks and days. The estimated delivery date, also called the estimated due date, is calculated as 40 weeks or 280 days from the first day of the last menstrual period. Only 4 percent (1 in 20) women will deliver on their due date. The normal duration of pregnancy is 37 to 42 weeks, which is referred to as “term.”

Abnormal and Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is abnormal genital tract bleeding based in the uterus and found in the absence of demonstrable structural or organic disease. It is usually due to hormonal disturbances: reduced levels of progesterone cause low levels of prostaglandin F2alpha and cause menorrhagia (abnormally heavy flow); increased levels of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) (a fibrinolytic enzyme) lead to more fibrinolysis.

Vaginal Infections

Vaginal yeast infections, also known as candidiasis, are a common female condition. A healthy vagina has bacteria and some yeast cells. But when the balance of bacteria and yeast changes, the yeast cells can multiply. This causes intense itching, swelling, and irritation. Treating a vaginal yeast infection can relieve symptoms within a few days. In more severe cases, it may take up to two weeks.

Pelvic Masses

A pelvic mass is a general term for any growth or tumor on the ovary or in the pelvis. A pelvic mass can be cystic (cystadenoma), solid (fibroma), or both (dermoid). A pelvic mass can be benign or malignant.
• Benign and Malignant Breast Disease
• Contraceptive counselling
• Hormonal Replacement
• Cervical Dysplasia and Cancer
• Pelvic pain
Other sites for growths can include the vagina, cervix, vulva, bowel, bladder, or rectum. Rarely, endometriosis appears in other parts of the body, such as the lungs, brain, and skin.
• Uterine fibroids
• Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
• Acne and abnormal female hair distribution
• Genital tract infections
• Vulva and vagina skin disorders

Menstrual Disorders

Menstrual Disorders include:
• Heavy menstrual bleeding
• Menstrual pain and irregularity
• Pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS)