Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system
Conditions treated by our neurosurgeons include, but are not limited to: Meningitis and other central nervous system infections including abscesses, Spinal disc herniation, Cervical spinal stenosis and Lumbar spinal stenosis, Hydrocephalus, Head trauma, Spinal cord trauma, Traumatic injuries of peripheral nerves, tumors of the spine, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The most common symptoms are fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Other symptoms include confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises.
Spinal disc herniation, also known as a slipped disc, is a medical condition affecting the spine in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring of an intervertebral disc allows the soft, central portion to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings. Disc herniation is usually due to age-related degeneration of the outer ring, known as the anulus fibrosus, although trauma, lifting injuries, or straining have been implicated as well. Tears are almost always postero-lateral (on the back of the sides) owing to the presence of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the spinal canal. This tear in the disc ring may result in the release of chemicals causing inflammation, which may directly cause severe pain even in the absence of nerve root compression.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain. This typically causes increased pressure inside the skull. Older people may have headaches, double vision, poor balance, urinary incontinence, personality changes, or mental impairment. In babies there may be a rapid increase in head size. Other symptoms may include vomiting, sleepiness, seizures, and downward pointing of the eyes.
Cervical spinal stenosis is a bone disease involving the narrowing of the spinal canal at the level of the neck. It is frequently due to chronic degeneration, but may also be congenital. Treatment is frequently surgical. Cervical spinal stenosis can be far more dangerous by compressing the spinal cord
Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a medical condition in which the spinal canal narrows and compresses the spinal cord and nerves at the level of the lumbar vertebrae. This is usually due to the common occurrence of spinal degeneration that occurs with aging. It can also sometimes be caused by spinal disc herniation, osteoporosis, a tumor, or trauma. In the cervical (neck) and lumbar (low back) region,it can be a congenital condition to varying degrees.
A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain. The terms traumatic brain injury and head injury are often used interchangeably in the medical literature. This broad classification includes neuronal injuries, hemorrhages, vascular injuries, cranial nerve injuries, and subdural hygromas, among many others. Head injuries include both injuries to the brain and those to other parts of the head, such as the scalp and skull.
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes changes in its function, either temporary or permanent. These changes translate into a loss of muscle function, sensation, or autonomic function in parts of the body served by the spinal cord below the level of the lesion. Injuries can occur at any level of the spinal cord and can be classified as a complete injury, a total loss of sensation and muscle function, or incomplete, meaning some nervous signals are able to travel past the injured area of the cord. Depending on the location and severity of damage along the spinal cord, the symptoms can vary widely, from pain or numbness to paralysis to incontinence.
Diseases of the peripheral nervous system can be specific to one or more nerves or affect the system as a whole. Any peripheral nerve or nerve root can be damaged, called a mononeuropathy. Such injuries can be because of injury or trauma, or compression. Compression of nerves can occur because of a tumor mass or injury. Common symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome include pain and numbness in the thumb, index and middle finger. In peripheral neuropathy, the function one or more nerves are damaged through a variety of means.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space — the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. Symptoms may include a severe headache of rapid onset, vomiting, decreased the level of consciousness, fever, and sometimes seizures. Neck stiffness or neck pain are also relatively common. In about a quarter of people, a small bleed with resolving symptoms occurs within a month of a larger bleed. SAH may occur as a result of a head injury or spontaneously, usually from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Risk factors for spontaneous cases included high blood pressure, smoking, family history, alcoholism, and cocaine use.
Drug-resistant epilepsy, also known as refractory epilepsy or pharmacoresistant epilepsy, is defined as failure of adequate trials of two tolerated and appropriately chosen and used antiepileptic drugs to achieve sustained seizure freedom. The probability that the next medication will achieve seizure freedom drops with every failed AED; for example, after two failed AEDs the probability that the third will achieve seizure freedom is around 4%. Drug-resistant epilepsy is commonly diagnosed after several years of uncontrolled seizures however in most cases it is evident much earlier. Approximately 30% of people with epilepsy have a drug-resistant form.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders. These include various abnormalities related to mood, behavior, cognition, and perceptions. Initial psychiatric assessment of a person typically begins with a case history and mental status examination. Physical examinations and psychological tests may be conducted. The combined treatment of psychiatric medication and psychotherapy has become the most common mode of psychiatric treatment in current practice.
Moyamoya disease is a disease in which certain arteries in the brain are constricted. Blood flow is blocked by the constriction, and also by blood clots (thrombosis). When Moyamoya is diagnosed by itself, with no underlying correlational conditions, it is diagnosed as Moyamoya disease. This is also the case when the arterial constriction and collateral circulation are bilateral.