Pathology is a medical specialty that determines the cause and nature of diseases by examining and testing body tissues for example from biopsies and bodily fluids samples including blood and urine. The results from these pathology tests help doctors diagnose and treat patients correctly.

Pathologists also play important roles in a range of research, from investigating the effects of new drugs in clinical trials to profiling the behavior of viruses and bacteria. Most pathologists have knowledge in both clinical and anatomical pathology.

  • Blood banking/transfusion. This field includes monitoring, processing, and compatibility of blood products.
  • Chemical pathology. This is the study of organic and inorganic substances in body fluids, including toxicology.
  • Clinical informatics. This is the study of informational systems, databases, and quality control and assurances.
  • Cytopathology. This field includes cellular alterations in disease. Cytopathology is often used to diagnose cancer.
  • Dermatopathology. This is a subspecialty of both pathology and dermatology. These pathologists specialize in interpreting skin biopsies. Dermatopathological results can help diagnose common skin diseases, as well as complex immunological diseases.
  • Forensic pathology. These pathologists study tissue in people who died suddenly, unexpectedly, or violently.
  • Hematology. This is the study of disease, illness, and dysfunction of the blood.
  • Medical microbiology. This is the study of infectious organisms and antibiotic susceptibilities.
  • Molecular genetic pathology. This is the study of genetic markers and testing.
  • Neuropathology. This is the study of the nervous system. Neuropathology can help diagnose neurological diseases.
  • Pediatric pathology. This is the study of pathology in children.




Pathologists also perform autopsies, which not only determine the person’s cause of death, but may also discover more information about the genetic progression of a disease. This discovery can help family members take preventive action for their own health and can aid researchers in developing future treatments.

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